L4M5認證題庫 & L4M5 PDF

在這個資訊時代,IT行業被很多人關注,但是在如今人才濟濟的社會裏任然比較缺乏IT人。很多公司都招聘IT人才,他們一般考察IT人才的能力會參考他們擁有的IT相關認證證書,所以擁有一些IT相關的認證證書是受很多公司歡迎的。但是這些認證證書也不是很容易就能拿到的。CIPS L4M5 就是一個相當有難度的認證考試,雖然很多人報名參加CIPS L4M5考試,但是通過率並不是很高。

CIPS L4M5 考試大綱:

主題 1
  • Analyse how to assess the process and outcomes of negotiations to inform future practice
  • Protecting relationships after the negotiation
主題 2
  • How purchasers can improve leverage with suppliers
  • The importance of power in commercial negotiations
主題 3
  • Costing methods such as absorption, marginal or variable and activity based costing
  • Know how to prepare for negotiations with external organisations
主題 4
  • Setting objectives and defining the variables for a commercial negotiation
  • Use of telephone, teleconferencing or web based meetings
主題 5
  • Macroeconomics and its influence on commercial negotiations
  • Contrast the economic factors that impact on commercial negotiations
主題 6
  • How behaviours should change during the different stages of a negotiation
  • Compare the key communication skills that help achieve desired outcomes
主題 7
  • Understand key approaches in the negotiation of commercial agreements with external organisations
  • Sources of conflict that can arise in the work of procurement and supply
主題 8
  • Identify the different types of relationships that impact on commercial negotiations
  • Pragmatic and principled styles of negotiation
主題 9
  • Analyse the application of commercial negotiations in the work of procurement and supply
  • Negotiation in relation to the stages of the sourcing process
主題 10
  • Differentiate between the types of approaches that can be pursued in commercial negotiations
  • Distributive win-lose, distributive approaches to negotiation
主題 11
  • Setting targets and creating a best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA)
  • Collaborative win-win integrative approaches to negotiations
主題 12
  • Organisational power: comparing the relative power of purchasers and suppliers
  • Explain how the balance of power in commercial negotiations can affect outcomes
主題 13
  • Team management and the influence of stakeholders in negotiations
  • Definitions of commercial negotiation

>> L4M5認證題庫 <<



最新的 CIPS Level 4 Diploma in Procurement and Supply L4M5 免費考試真題 (Q77-Q82):

問題 #77
Which of the following is categorised as fixed cost?

  • A. Raw materials for next year production
  • B. Governments taxes
  • C. Land rental paid in advance
  • D. Additional pallet hires due to higher demand in year-end season


Anorganisation's expense can be categorised into three groups:
Fixed Costs - costs that do not change with output.
Variable Costs - costs that vary in direct proportion to output.
Semi-variable costs - costs that are a combination of the above, with both a fixed and variable element.
Among the four options:
"Land rental paid in advance": This is fixed cost. The rental won't increase when the production increases.
"Additional pallet hires due to higher demand in year-end season": This can be identified as semi-variable cost (or step cost).
"Governments taxes": The taxes are often levied by a percentage of income or revenue. Therefore, it is variable
"Raw materials for next year production": This is obviously variable cost.

問題 #78
Which of the following are examples of connected stakeholders in a private organisation? Select TWO that apply.

  • A. Media
  • B. Local community
  • C. Customers
  • D. Shareholders
  • E. Government


Connected stakeholders are those who, by contractual or commercial relationships, have a significant stake in organisation activity. As a general rule, connectedstakeholder (with the exception of suppliers) have a low level of influence on procurement negotiations.
Examples of connected stakeholders are: suppliers, customers, bank where the organisation opens its account, shareholders.

問題 #79
In a commercial negotiation, a procurement professional negotiates on his company's behalf. The power of buying organisation is the only factor that influences the behaviours of the other party. Is this assumption true?

  • A. No, because personal power of negotiators also attributes tothe outcomes
  • B. Yes, because the outcomes of negotiation are attributable to the buying organisation
  • C. No, because power of supplier is the only factor that influences the other party
  • D. Yes, because buyer's brand, reputation and purchasing spend largely determine the outcomes


The assumption is false, because when aprocurement professional negotiates on behalf of his employer, he brings the power of his organisation (its brand, reputation and purchasing spend) as well his own personal power (that which is embedded within him) to the negotiation.
From a negotiation perspective, both organisational and personal power have the ability to influence the behaviours of other or the cause of event. This power is clearly core to negotiation, and of enormous important in seeking to achieve the objectives.

問題 #80
A good negotiator invests time in understanding the needs of the individuals in a negotiation. Is this statement true?

  • A. Yes, because individual needs largely influence the outcomes of the negotiation
  • B. Yes, because individuals' needs always unify with their own organisation's needs and wants
  • C. No, because satisfying individual needs will lead to conflict of interest and unethical practices
  • D. No, becausenegotiator should attempt to satisfy the needs of the other organisation only


Skilled negotiators seek to understand the needs of the other parties, as well as their own. In doing so, it allows them to determine a strategy that their own needs are met. Failing to understand the other party's needs is one of the most common reason for an unsuccessful negotiation. In the commercial negotiation, procurement team does not negotiate with organisation, they negotiate with individuals. It is therefore important to recognise that there are two levels of needs:
The organisation - What the organisation wants to achieve. This is generally well stated and understood The individual - what is in it for the individual? This is generally not stated, rarely discussed, but very motivational. It is vitally important therefore that time is invested in understanding the needs of the individual Skilled negotiators are aware of the needs that occur at both levels, and develop creative options and strategies that attempt to satisfy these needs.

問題 #81
When prices of input materials increase, supply curve shifts to the left while demand remains stable. The shift of supply will tend to cause which of the following?

  • A. An increase in the equilibrium price and a decrease inthe equilibrium quantity
  • B. An increase in the equilibrium price and quantity
  • C. A decrease in the equilibrium price and an increase in the equilibrium quantity
  • D. A decrease in the equilibrium price and quantity


The case in the question is illustrated as below:
Diagram Description automatically generated
The equilibrium price initially at P0 with quantity Q0, when supply curve shifts to the left, it will converge with demand curve at new equilibrium pointwith price P1 and quantity Q1. As you can see from the graph, P1 is greater than P0 and Q1 is smaller than Q0.

問題 #82

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Publicado en Default Category en marzo 28 at 03:20
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